Why you should listen –
Ariane Resnick is a special diet chef and certified nutritionist who develops accessible, organic farm-to-table recipes and creates indulgent, “normal” food out of impeccably clean, whole ingredients. Her first book, “The Bone Broth Miracle,” was released in May, 2015, and is an Amazon #1 best-seller and her second book, “The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking,” is out today through Regan Arts! On this episode of Bulletproof Radio, Dave and Ariane talk about drinking healthy, finding your ideal alcohol, slowing down your drunk, recovering, clean drink ingredients, human’s history with alcohol and more. Enjoy the show!
Share your favorite quote on Dave’s Facebook post for this episode for a chance to win a signed copy of “The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking.”
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Speaker 1: Bulletproof Radio, a state of high performance.
Dave: You’re listening to Bulletproof Radio with Dave Asprey. Today’s cool fact of the day is that, get this, women tend to get drunk faster than men do. Like, who would have thought?
The obvious reason is that women are smaller than men on average, so less tissue to absorb the alcohol, so that would make sense. That’s just a dosing issue, but the other thing that’s interesting is that women tend to have more fat than men. There’s an obvious reason for that. It’s called boobs. They also have less water than men, so, not only are they smaller physically on average, but there’s more alcohol present in the bloodstream just because there’s less water, and women have less of an enzyme called ADH, or alcohol dehydrogenase, which is what helps your body get the alcohol out of the system.
Basically, for women more of what they drink enters the bloodstream as pure alcohol, and that’s why you’re probably a lighter weight if you are a woman, unless you drink like 5 or 6 days a week, in which case you’re probably not a lightweight because you’re an alcoholic. At that point, you’ve upregulated your ability to make that enzyme, but other bad things are happening to you biologically.
Before we get into today’s show, if you haven’t had a chance to try Bulletproof Unfair Advantage, you should give this stuff a try. Bulletproof Unfair Advantage is one of the most important supplements I’ve ever made. It can help you feel better when you are either going to get a hangover or after you got one, because Bulletproof Unfair Advantage is designed to help your mitochondria work better. Mitochondria make energy in your cells. When you’re hungover, you’re inflamed and your energy production is reduced, so you’ll feel better when you do that.
One of the things that I do when I do have alcohol, which isn’t that often, to be perfectly honest, but, if I do, I tend to choose an alcohol that has less unfiltered yeast product in it, in other words, I’ll pick a vodka or something or, if I’m going to drink a wine, which is an unfiltered alcohol, I tend to drink a wine that’s at least as old as I am or something, which is something that automatically prevents me from drinking a ton, but what is I will take a vitamin C capsule and I will take a whole ampule of Unfair Advantage. Vitamin C helps the liver to make glutathione and Unfair Advantage helps me have more energy, so I feel good when I’m drinking, and then, when I’m done drinking, I take a tube or half a tube, in other words, 5 doses of Bulletproof Glutathione Force, which raises glutathione.
What you can do here is you can help your mitochondria perform better and you can help your detox processes so things work really, really well. Even if you’re not drinking Unfair Advantage, which is something that I take every single day because it just makes me have more energy in a way that’s different than caffeine or even Brain Octane, it’s a different source of energy, it’s pretty cool, I’d like you to pay attention real quick. If you like today’s episode as much as I like today’s episode, and, yes, I’m putting this in at the end, would you do me a favor? Go to iTunes and leave some 5-star feedback. I’m going to ask you to do that at the end of the show, but just start watching out and just ask yourself, like, “Is this show worth my time?” and if it is, let me know. Just leave a review. It’s so helpful for me to know that you’ve enjoyed it. I appreciate it.
All right, let’s do this. Today’s guest is Ariane Resnick. She’s a special diet chef and a certified nutritionist who uses organic, farm-to-table, clean ingredients with a focus on restricted diets. She wrote the Amazon-bestselling The Bone Broth Miracle. Her new book, and the reason I’m interviewing her today, is called The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking. Thus, the cool fact of the day. She’s a biohacker. She was at last year’s Bulletproof Conference, and I’ve just enjoyed getting to know her and to find that she really thinks interestingly about these things.
Ariane, why did you write a book about getting drunk for girls?
Ariane: I’m a thinking girl, so it’s my perspective on drinking. [inaudible 00:04:08] a book for women. My first book, The Bone Broth Miracle, the most interesting aspect to the people who talk to me about it was the last chapter, which was bone broth cocktails. There are 2 elements of that that really captured people. One was the idea of using a whole food to mitigate some of the effects of alcohol, and the other one was the very simple fact that I drink. Like it really shocked people that I would promote alcohol as part of a healthy lifestyle, and it shocked me that it shocked people so much because I’m a human and we all do things for enjoyment no matter how health conscious we are, so I really wanted to show people that drinking can be part of a healthy lifestyle and it doesn’t have to be with really bland, plain cocktails.
The book is about 25% mocktails because I also wanted to show people that, if you don’t drink, you can still have a good time with an assortment of really health-promoting, fun beverages.
Dave: Now, you said you promote drinking as part of a healthy lifestyle. Did you actually think drinking is good for you?
Ariane: Small amounts of alcohol have obviously been shown to have health-promoting effects. I do not advocate drinking in the capacity of go-out-and-get-drunk-every-night by any means. What I do is work with what people are doing anyway. People drink. About 60% to 70% of the population consumes alcohol, so, rather than be a vigilante who says, “You shouldn’t do this. There are aspects of it that are bad for you,” I am a steady person who says, “If you’re going to do this, why don’t you do it in a way that doesn’t make you feel so bad and that you use some ingredients that help prevent some of those negative effects?” and that makes a lot more sense to me.
Dave: You’re following a harm-reduction strategy for alcohol and not saying it’s good for you.
Ariane: I mean, they’ve shown small amounts of different alcohols have health benefits.
Dave: In some studies …
Ariane: If you’re going to dink a glass of wine every other night, you have a 20% reduced risk of stroke. There are aspects of it that are healthful. It has toxins, for sure. I don’t have any vantage point of “forget about all that.” What I say is, “You’re going to do it because we’re human, and it’s okay to do things that aren’t 100% health perfect, but, if you’re going to do them, do them in a way that’s healthier.” Do them in a way where you feel great afterwards instead of terrible afterwards, and do them with fun, great, quality foods that you’re probably eating anyway.
Dave: I agree with you on that point. This is an area where I’ve seen the alcohol industry, particularly the wine industry, fund studies and look at ways of saying, “Oh, alcohol is good for you. Like, we’ve got this study,” and then there’s about 1,000 PubMed studies that, if you just would Google alcohol and cancer and look at them in PubMed, you’ll find, okay, you’ve got a 20% reduction in stroke, but an increase in cancer, so I’m, like, “Look, yes, people drink, right, and they’re going to do it, so you might as well do it in a way that doesn’t harm yourself,” but I don’t want us to go down that path of telling people, “Oh, you should drink a little bit every day to prevent Alzheimer’s disease or some other BS like that. People say that and it kind of makes me mad.
Ariane: I know some people who drink daily by any means. I don’t drink daily.
Dave: Cool. I appreciate that. I just want to be really clear for our listeners because I’m, like, “Look, alcohol isn’t good for you,” but you might do it, if you’re going to, like, how can you make it so you get the fun? Pie isn’t good for you either, but I eat pie on occasion. It’s probably a gluten-free pie, but the same difference, right?
Ariane: That is very much the point. There’s no part of this where I’m saying, “Start drinking more. It’s great for you.”
Dave: Okay. Good deal.
Ariane: That’s not the thing.
Dave: Now, which is better for you, pie or alcohol?
Ariane: Personally, I mean, I’d go for cake because I’m not a pie person. Pie is such a waste of flour. It’s not even sweet. Like, why are you doing it? Flour and butter, to me, just makes no sense without something to sweeten it, so pie is off the table for me.
Dave: All right, I hear you there. You’re a cake versus … but you’d make a garbanzo cake, wouldn’t you? Aren’t you famous for your garbanzo cake? Isn’t that how you got hired?
Ariane: That’s how I got hired for my first chef job. You have a great memory. Thank you.
Dave: Oh, you’re welcome. All right, is there such a thing as an alcohol recipe with garbanzo beans, because our friend, JJ Virgin would jump up and down if she knew about that because she’s like Ms. Garbanzo Bean? Do you have a recipe for garbanzo alcohol?
Ariane: You could use the bean aquafaba, the bean water that’s so popular nowadays for a vegan version of egg whites in a cocktail, and, yes, that is done.
Dave: No kidding? All right, I am going to make one of those for JJ just to be garbanzoed. Thank you for the idea, by the way.
Ariane: No problem.
Dave: One of the things that I found really intriguing about your book is that you are mixing things that traditionally have no business being in alcohol, bone broth. I use collagen. We make bone broth at the Bulletproof Coffee Shop. We don’t have an alcohol license, and I don’t know that I would sell alcohol as part of the whole Bulletproof thing, but, if you were going to drink, how do you possibly use bone broth or collagen? Why would you put that in alcohol? It’s such a weird idea. By the way, I like weird ideas. That’s not a criticism. That’s a compliment.
Ariane: I have in one of the chapters of the book, because it’s divided into chapters based on different whole foods, one of the chapters of the book is called College Plus Gin Equals Collagen. On the one hand, it uses foods that increase collagen production and, on the other hand, we recommend adding Bulletproof Collagen, a scoop to each drink, and then, if you’re vegan and you don’t want to do that, you’re still consuming things that increase collagen production. Every ingredient that I use in the book has health effects outside of alcohol, but also has specific effects that help mitigate some of the negative effects of alcohol. One thing that alcohol is known for doing is not making people age quite so gracefully.
Dave: You’re saying alcohol makes you look old? Is that what I heard you say?
Ariane: It’s not like people who have alcohol issues have a really youthful face. People who have any kind of issues don’t tend to have a really youthful face. By using foods to mix that are collagen-promoting foods, you can help reduce the lack of collagen that’s a result of the alcohol consumption, and then, if you don’t drink, there are mocktails that just help with collagen production, and you’ll look even better than all of those people who do.
Dave: Now, why would people care about collagen?
Ariane: The same reason that people would care about anything else, they’d care about collagen. You care about what will make you look and feel good. It’s our nature in this society at least. It maybe not out in the forest, but as far as where we are right now, we tend to care about how we look and we tend to care about how we feel.
Dave: Now, alcohol reduces your level of glutathione in the body. Glutathione is this detoxing compound. Glutathione is made out of vitamin C and some other stuff, some amino acids and alpha lipoic acid and whatever. If you drink a lot, alcohol is going to reduce vitamin C and, since your collagen is also made out of vitamin C, your body is like, “All right, protect the liver,” which takes vitamin C, “or go ahead and build new tissues, like healthy blood vessels, healthy skin, healthy bones out of collagen,” so you’re choosing between one of the two, unless you do what you’re talking about in your book where you’re saying, “All right, well, you could take some collagen, so, then, you have the building blocks for collagen or use foods high in vitamin C,” or maybe just take vitamin C.
What are some of the foods, say, a vegan could put in their alcohol in order to have less of an effect from the alcohol?
Ariane: In terms of collagen?
Dave: Or just in terms of stuff you recommend, like, kind of walk me through it.
Ariane: With the collagen chapter, we use things like white tea and blackberries. There are millions of options. The ones I focused on were the most accessible. Kombucha is available pretty much anywhere in the country now. I have a chapter on that. Chocolate and chocolate products, because most people really enjoy chocolate, and we use it as cocoa powder, both raw and the typical roasted, as well as chocolate extract and that sort of thing. Lemons and limes are kind of an obvious one. Basically, I went for anything that had at least one really strong aspect of either detoxification or anti-inflammation or anti-nausea or collagen promotion. I chose foods that had strong health effects in general, that also would play in well with the things we know alcohol does to our bodies.
Dave: Okay, tell me the worst thing alcohol does to your body.
Ariane: I think that’s probably opinion, but I would have to say the after-effects, if you don’t do it right, how you feel the next day. I mean, that’s everyone’s complaint. No one says, “I’m drunk right now and I’m having such a bad time,” unless they’ve had too much. For the most part, it’s a fun experience, and that’s why we do it. Obviously, you want to stop before you hit that point. I don’t in any way advocate getting drunk, and I don’t myself, and I haven’t since I was probably in my 20’s, when that’s what you do, until your body is, like, “No, no, you don’t do that anymore.”
Dave: Okay. How do you feel afterwards? What is the single best food ingredient that’s going to reverse feeling crappy the next morning?
Ariane: I definitely recommend taking caution before you drink, to pay attention to what you eat. Don’t have a whole bunch of refined carbohydrates so you’re on a blood sugar high and low cycle before you start adding alcohol, which is full of sugar into the picture. Eat proteins and fats and, if you want, carbs have fiber filled, sweet potato and that type of carbs, beforehand where you’re slowing down the absorption.
What you eat right before you drink is huge and what you consume along with what you drink. We have lots of drinks that have fresh coconut water in them. Because that’s great for a hangover, so why not have it with the electrolytes along with the alcohol? Ideally, you want to avoid the hangover situation. Period. With a drink or two in general, most people can. What I’m really doing is helping ensure that. Now, with a drink or two of this sort of thing instead of that sort of thing, you’re much more likely to just feel great the next day because we’re not using … There’s no refined sugar added to anything, there is no mixers with corn syrup. I mean, the mixing world on the non-alcoholic side is insane. The things they add to commercial products are just nuts, so we really avoided all of those.
Dave: The best ingredient to mix with your alcohol to feel good the next morning is “caution?”
Ariane: Yes, and “intelligence,” the thinking girl. That’s the point. Do this in a way … if you’re going to it, do it in a way that is a little bit smarter and that feels good and you still can have a good time. That’s the point. We’re very much here to have a good time. We need that. We need to de-stress. There are definitely more healthy ways to de-stress, and I do those as well, but there’s nothing wrong with using alcohol as an aid to have a lovely evening in a way that tastes good.
Dave: What alcohol is the best alcohol to choose for a thinking girl?
Ariane: I believe very much in listening to your own body. There are scientific studies that will say one thing is better than another. In my personal experience, I kept trying, while I wanted wine, to drink white wine instead of red because it’s supposed to be better for you. Unfortunately, white wine makes me unconscious. In about 30 to 60 minutes after a glass of wine I am just done and I can’t even generally be woken up, which is very much not the way I sleep, so I drink red wine even though it has elements in it that, for plenty of people, according to science, should affect them more negatively than white wine does.
Dave: Like what? What’s in red wine that should make it … Most people think red wine is healthier than white wine. Like what’s the difference?
Ariane: The way in which red wine is considered healthier is because of the resveratrol, but there just isn’t enough to … What do they say? You’d have to drink 50 gallons to get what you’re looking for out of a pill?
Dave: I think the equivalent of probably 500 gallons worth of wine every day in the resveratrol and related compounds of polyphenols that I take, so, yeah, it doesn’t make sense. Why is white wine supposed to be healthier than red then?
Ariane: I think that’s a question for you because you’re one of the big advocates of that.
Dave: Oh, I am, but I just [inaudible 00:16:24] you wrote a book [inaudible 00:16:25] don’t want to give a lecture.
Ariane: I wrote a book much more on how to choose wisely for yourself based on how things make you feel.
Dave: Okay, so you look at how you feel?
Dave: That’s something where we have a lot of alignment on. My recommendations on white wine are that red wine tastes better, which is maybe something that’s vital, but that red wine tends to have more of the mitochondrial inhibiting toxins, particularly called OTA than white wine. The best choice, on average, for people is to drink a dry, white French wine, because they’re the best. I actually have some good friends at Dry Farm Wines. Go to bulletproof.com or bulletproofexec.com/wine. I have links to a low toxin wine.
You can drink a red wine instead of a moldy red wine. You can drink a non-moldy red wine, and I feel a very big difference because of the quality of the fermentation. Even there it’s like, okay, we like to tell ourselves red wine is red wine, but there are thousands of compounds in there, and that white wine is white wine, and I imagine that, if you were to waste 500 nights of your life by testing out a whole bunch of different white wines, you’d be, like, “Oh, my God, when I drink the 2008 white wine from this wine, this winery, I feel totally good.” Like, “This one’s clean and this one’s not clean.” Right? What clean means for you biologically might be different than for someone else.
Dave: That is the confusing thing here, and then there’s the overall thing. Even if you don’t feel it, it’s probably not that good for you. There’s some compounds like mercury. Like, I don’t feel mercury right away or I don’t know that I feel it, but really, if mercury is in your wine, you probably ought to not drink that wine. Just saying, right?
Ariane: For sure, or be intelligent about it and take chlorella with it or selenium.
Dave: What do you recommend then for someone who’s, like, “All right, I decided that I want to drink something tonight. I have a choice. I can have tequila. I can have vodka. I can have champagne. You know, I can have beer.” Are you sort of like, “Well, just test them out so you know what makes you feel good?”
Ariane: Typically, by the time people are looking at a cocktail book, they have an idea about alcohol. You definitely want to be intelligent about what you choose and you want to be informed about what you choose. When you say champagne, people should know, for one, even though it’s low in alcohol, it’s going to get you drunk faster because of the carbon dioxide. You want to put that in the context of what you’re looking for. Do you want a really short night? Are you looking to just share a bottle of something with a couple of people, have a great cheers, have a great moment, get a buzz, let it wait off for an hour or so and go home, or are you looking for something that you know your body tolerates a bit better and that you know you can mix with things that will help mitigate its effects and you want a longer evening?
We do things. A lot of the cocktails are, of course, tequila based, vodka based, gin based, hard alcohols, but we also do a lot of mixing things like sherry or port or champagne with non-alcoholic things. A lot of the alcohol cocktails are really low in alcohol, which is great for people who don’t have a high tolerance or just don’t want a ton of alcohol, but do still want a little bit of something.
Dave: I hear you there. I’m thinking about all the times that I regretted drinking, and there are more than a few. Back when I was in college, and I was pushing 300 pounds, I remember I would drink beer. In fact, this was at UC Santa Barbara, and we had something called … I think it was Brew 102, like perfect after the 101st, and it was cheaper than buying Shasta Cola, like, the off-brand cola, so that was what college students would serve at parties. It was profoundly a bad beer. I drink this and, after 3 beers, I just want to go to sleep, so I’m, like, “What if you have 3 beers and 3 shots of espresso?” I’m like, “This is the best night ever,” and I literally would do that because I’m, like, “Wow, like, this is the perfect high for me.” Like, “Now, I’m full of energy and I’m, I’m drunk and I’m probably just like an asshole,” but this is more in retrospect.
Ariane: Actually, one of the chapters is called Café au Stay-Up-Late. It’s coffee-based cocktails and …
Ariane: … of course, I recommend that, if you are sensitive to caffeine, you use decaf, but there are also really good ones for the mocktail that are in the chapter because you can still get a buzz from caffeine, maca, He Shou Wu, that sort of thing, without the alcohol just because …
Dave: You totally can.
Ariane: … I love the idea that, just because you don’t want alcohol, it doesn’t mean you don’t want to have any sort of consciousness altering. You still may be looking for that, you just don’t specifically want alcohol. That’s another thing we use in the book is kava, which has grown in popularity a lot. It’s calming, anti-anxiety, all those sorts of things, but completely non-alcoholic. It’s just a root.
Dave: Do you mix kava and alcohol together in a drink?
Ariane: We only do that in one drink, and I did that because I wanted to offer people an option that really took away the negative taste of kava. I rediscovered in testing that alcohol can do that better than anything. It was an interesting experience to work with kava within the framework of trying to make it into something that people who didn’t necessarily drink kava would enjoy. If you’ve ever had it, you know what it tastes like.
Dave: Yeah, that’s a challenge to make it taste good. It’s interesting, too, because alcohol activates some GABA(B) receptors. GABA is a calming amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. For some people, the people who are chilled out about alcohol, they’re getting that action. If you stack it with kava, you can have a really nice night, right, and just … You’re may be having less alcohol, and the kava could be synergistic with that, but I agree with you there, it’s a challenge to formulate something with kava that tastes good other than a capsule where you just swallow it with a shot of vodka and then …
Is there a benefit to having alcohol mixed versus just drinking a shot of something and then, also, having the other compounds in a different beverage? Could you have some kava tea and alcohol separately? Why would you mix them other than flavor?
Ariane: For effects, in general, is why we mix foods with the specific alcohols we do, for both taste and to simulate a lot of those classic cocktail flavors without using the harmful ingredients, because, often, it’s not just the alcohol that makes you feel sick, it’s all the sugars you add to it. The less you do that, the better you’ll feel. Everyone has different elements of alcohol consumption that bother their particular body. If you notice you have a yeast reaction to alcohol, having probiotics, and then we have also drinks with prebiotics and probiotics in them so that you’re feeding the probiotics. If probiotics help cancelling out the effects of getting rid of your good gut flora, then that’s a better choice for you.
Dave: I have always loved the concept of Irish coffee, putting alcohol in coffee because the first product I ever made, it turns out, it was the first e-commerce product ever, was a T-shirt that said, “Caffeine, my drug of choice.” I was trying to pay for my college education, and I ended up as a 22-year-old or something being in Entrepreneur magazine for having sold this thing over this new thing called the internet that no one’s ever heard of.
Ariane: That’s awesome.
Dave: Every time I would put alcohol in my coffee, I would get the worst heartburn. It was painful. I spent a year on acid blockers a couple of years after that. Even to this day, if I put … I have a healthy GI tract, if I put alcohol in coffee, I do not like how my GI tract feels. Do you know why that is or how you counteract that?
Ariane: I would think it would be the acid combination, because you’re not just having an acidic food, you’re having an acidic food with another acidic food.
Dave: It could also be the heat just because it’s a hot beverage versus a cold one. I always thought that might be …
Ariane: We do a bunch of cold brew ones, for sure, and we also combine it with things. Like we have one called an industry standard where it’s got Fernet and coffee.
Dave: What is Fernet? That is the weirdest.
Ariane: Fernet is … It’s called industry standard because that’s for mostly in San Francisco, but some other cities as well, that’s what everyone in the bar industry drinks. It’s a very strong herbal liqueur. It actually, during Prohibition, was able to bypass the Prohibition laws by them just putting it in hospitals because it’s that medicinal in flavor.
Dave: It’s super bitter, right?
Ariane: It’s bitter. It’s licoricey. It’s really herbal. I love assorted herbal liqueurs. We use a bunch of them in the book. It’s definitely the strongest one. For someone who has issues with the acidity of coffee with alcohol, it’s something that has an assortment of digestive aids, like Fernet is a great choice.
Dave: A while back, I went and I saw this very sought-after acupuncturist. It’s a Korean form of acupuncture down somewhere in Beverly Hills, and 2 different functional medicine doctors are, like, “I don’t know why we need to see this guy?” so I went and I saw him, and he measures via tapping and … like things I don’t understand, frankly, but like he looks at the relative size of your organs and says, “This is what you should eat and drink.” This guy told me, “You need a lot of bitters,” and so I went out and I bought the most nasty, bitter things I could possibly find, including anise, which actually I kind of like, and, that stuff, that was illegal during Prohibition, just for our listeners.
I tried drinking these things. You know what? I had this like a half a shot a night, and I had the same effect if I drink alcohol in that it makes me tired. I’m like, “I don’t like this,” and I did it for two weeks and all I got was … weaker, I’m like, “This isn’t good for me,” and I quit doing it. If you know then, what are the reasons you might want to go for bitters, like a really bitter alcohol? What do they do for you?
Ariane: Bitters in general are digestive.
Ariane: Those are great. We have a chapter called Don’t Be Bitter that is bitters-based, obviously. Those are great cocktails to choose if you’re going to drink really shortly after dinner because one of people’s biggest complaints about having alcohol after food is that they don’t feel the effects of alcohol, it just makes them feel bloated. To have a bitters-based cocktail after dinner, you’re going to help digest your food, which is a good thing to do anyway and, in addition to that, you’ll feel the alcohol a little more, which will make you drink a little less.
Dave: That’s the kind of thing that I appreciate about your book, just having that, now, thinking about it, like you said, The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking, so just paying attention to that and saying, “All right. All right. If you drink, if you feel it more, you feel it less.” What if you do all these food-based things, are you going to necessarily drink more? If you were to have your alcohol on an empty stomach and go out and party, like that’s probably the lowest dose of alcohol that you’re going to feel, so …
Ariane: [inaudible 00:27:22] discuss that. How much what you eat beforehand depends on what you want to accomplish out of your night and that, if you are looking to really get a buzz quickly, have a very light dinner, then have a cocktail. You’re going to notice it. You’ll feel it right away far more or specifically, it’s the carbohydrates because it’s the things that stay in your stomach and take a longer time to get through and that alcohol can literally soak right into. It’s really hard for alcohol to soak into avocado, whereas it’s really easy for it to soak into bread, if you’re talking about consuming something within a couple hours when the food is literally still going through your stomach.
Dave: Got it, so what happens in the stomach really matters. If you want to just slow down your alcohol absorption, what would you mix in with your alcohol?
Ariane: Specifically, blended type drinks. We have one called If You Like Pina Coladas. I do big chunks of pineapple and bananas with rum so that you’re getting all the fiber of the food. I make a note for that drink. You’re not going to feel this like you would feel a pina colada that’s pineapple juice based. This will be a slower absorption because you’ve got the fiber of the fruit. This is going to be more of a snack. Have it with that in mind.
Dave: Do you use Brain Octane in any of the recipes here?
Ariane: I actually have About kava. There’s a kava mocktail called Armored Hot Chocolate that I state is my version of Bulletproof Hot Chocolate. You do cocoa powder. I think I add a toffee stevia for sweetness because, the kava, you really need something, a raw cocoa powder, Brain Octane and grass-fed butter.
Dave: It’s interesting, when you mix Brain Octane into alcohol or just even take capsules of it, Brain Octane has specific effects in the liver with respect to alcohol production … or not production. What’s the word I’m looking for? It has specific effects in the liver with respect to how your liver breaks down alcohol toxins. I find it a huge difference in how I feel from it because, when you have some ketones present, Brain Octane raises ketones, you can also have less inflammation in the cells because ketones make less free radicals than sugar does. If you have a little bit less inflammation at the same time you introduced an alcohol that can be inflammatory, you can balance things out, and you feel better.
There’s actually PubMed studies about that stuff, and I’m like, “Wow, that’s kind of cool.” That’s one of the things that I make sure that I do in the meal that I eat. If I’m going to have wine or something … I do this at every meal anyway, but I always pour Brain Octane on my food or blend it in or something even if it’s a dinnertime meal. I don’t just put Brain Octane in the coffee. I put it somewhere, and I find that makes a difference for how I feel if I’m going to have alcohol.
Ariane: Makes perfect sense.
Dave: I like the taste of alcohol sometimes, but I don’t necessarily want to a drink, so how can I get the taste of alcohol without actually having alcohol in a mixed drink?
Ariane: The easiest way to get the taste of alcohol without drinking, which is a fun thought in and of itself, is to put in the other things that you would normally have in a cocktail. Right from the start, if you’re talking something bubbly, something citrus and you begin with those elements, you’re going to have an experience that feels like having a drink. We have tons of mocktails that have a very cocktail experience because they aren’t just a single glass filled with ice and a straw and some non-alcoholic liquids. We do things like one called … It’s the size of a vodka Gimlet, and I call it a Kimmy Gimlet. It’s fresh basil muddled with lemon juice and maple syrup, and you get a shot. It’s a very strong basil, lemon, slightly sweetened little shot, so you get this alcohol-like experience because, normally, you wouldn’t do a shot of something that wasn’t alcoholic.
You’re not going to likely take a shot of lemon juice or something like that, but you have this bright green little drink that reads like green juice, but, thankfully, it doesn’t even have any vegetable juice in it. It’s sweet. It’s tangy. It’s super herbal. You get an experience. That’s what we’re looking for most of the time. It’s not just the taste, but the experience.
Dave: That’s a cool idea. I need to try that one. I certainly haven’t tried all the recipes in the book because there’s a lot of them, and I think I might-
Ariane: There’s a lot of recipes.
Dave: I enjoy, with dinner, I’ll drink sparkling water like a San Pellegrino or something. For people listening, yeah, San Pellegrino is owned by a big, mean, bad company. However, before it was owned by them, it was a healing spring, and it still is. Given that, in most restaurants, I can get that and I can’t really get any other water and it’s one of the highest sulfate waters, yes, I drink San Pellegrino. I just would like the company that owns them to recognize that water is a human right, so there. I said my both sides of the argument there, but I’ll take San Pellegrino.
I will add a little bit of something sour, even a few drops of apple cider vinegar and a few drops of different kinds of bitters. If you get the right balance of sour and bitter and you drink it, you’re like, “It’s kind of kombucha-esque.” You’re like, “I’m drinking something that I would almost think is either beer-ish or champagne-ish.” I play around with that sometimes. It’s cool. You can put little bits of turmeric and all. It isn’t even really a mocktail. It’s just got the vibe, for lack of a better word, of having a beer with a meal without all the downside of beer, which is pretty substantial.
Ariane: That’s something I really feel is underserved overall for all the different communities that don’t have alcohol. One of my motivations for putting so many mocktails in the book was I did kundalini yoga teacher training this past year just to really deepen my practice and get a better understanding of it. It’s a very non-alcoholic community, so they go to all this great trouble to make tons of delicious food and then they have sparkling apple juice.
Dave: That drives me nuts.
Ariane: It’s like, “We’re not 8-years-old.” You could do so much better and so simply, and people would be so excited about it.
Dave: They would be, and, also, don’t give that to 8-year-olds. It’s a super sugar bomb. It’s like candy. Like do you want to see 9-year-olds misbehaving at a party? Give them sparkling apple juice.
Ariane: Exactly. It’s not even a fresh juice. There’s so little health benefit to it. It was in seeing that community and how excited people got about food and baked goods and all of those things and then, when it came to what they drank, there just weren’t very many options. Sometimes, quite typically, in social situations you don’t necessarily have food, but you almost always have drinks. Offering people a glass of water is just so sad compared to, “Hey, everyone, let’s do shots of this thing that’s going to make you feel great and tastes good and looks good.”
Dave: There’s clearly a space for mocktails that are really special. I like that about your book. Frankly, I don’t read a lot of books about mixology because alcohol is not my high performance drug of choice. It’s not a performance enhancer pretty much for anyone. Maybe one drink for some people, but the studies are pretty clear about that. I’m, like, “I want to feel lots of energy. I want to feel good the next day.” Alcohol isn’t necessarily going to be added to my life, so to go through a lot of trouble to mix it, but you’re book is cool because there’s a lot of mocktails in it, where the social aspects are accounted for without the performance inhibiting effects of alcohol, but there’s also alcohol in there because sometimes you want alcohol. There isn’t a moral judgment about whether you want it or whether you have it or not.
Ariane: No, not in the slightest.
Dave: It’s just like-
Ariane: I try to refrain from those in general.
Dave: Yeah. It’s like, “How do you want to feel tomorrow?” and then you’re going to choose your food, choose your poison, whatever you want to call it. It’s the same, I could go to Taco Bell.
Ariane: [crosstalk 00:35:13].
Dave: Right, or maybe I could eat something better and have a drink with something better and still feel better the next day. Right? You’re going to pick and you’re going to dial it in.
Ariane: Exactly, and so much of our choices in life are just a matter of being informed by someone. I really believe in covert nutrition. I don’t think you should have to feel like you’re getting knowledge to get some knowledge. That, basically, translated into a book where you get so many nutrition tips. You learn about so many different foods and you learn about different health-promoting aspects of so many different foods, but you don’t really notice because you’re reading cocktail recipes.
Ariane: I love that. That’s what I like to see, and that’s what I feel people respond best to is when they don’t feel like, “Oh, I’m getting an education here. I’ve got to do this. There’s no need for that.”
Dave: Now, do you put kale in alcoholic drinks?
Ariane: I have a chapter called Green Without Envy, but it’s green juices. It’s assorted blends. We use some, just generic, store-bought green juice because that’s the most accessible thing, and then we use individual juices like celery juice in place of olive juice for a dirty martini.
Dave: [inaudible 00:36:24] for like the actual kale. Do you like to, say, like juice a kale and put it in alcohol?
Ariane: We only have it in the context of a mixed green juice.
Dave: Okay, cool.
Ariane: [inaudible 00:36:31] we’ll usually have spinach, kale, that sort of thing. I did the kale thing really significantly by having a brand of kale chips. I feel like life beyond kale, life after kale, I had had my fair share. I have fed my fair share to America. We’re cool off that for a while.
Dave: You make me laugh. Yeah. I have kale in the garden. I oftentimes just feed it to chickens because they’ll eat it if the cows won’t because they don’t like oxalyic acid and neither will horses.
Ariane: [crosstalk 00:37:05].
Dave: I kind feel it would be a waste of alcohol to put a kale, vodka smoothie. Like, “Really?” Like it’s just like, I don’t know, like put bacon in instead.
Ariane: We do green juice. It’s very popular now in cocktails. It’s a thing in New York especially at a couple of different bars, so I did want to have green juice in there because people are so into it.
Dave: Sure. It makes sense.
Ariane: I argue both sides of that argument as far as “is juice good for you at all?”
Dave: A mixed green juice with alcohol? I don’t have a problem, but if you’re going to go out their way to, “I’m going to muddle kale with this,” like, “Seriously?” Like get over it. Anyway, I’m happy. I didn’t study every recipe.
Ariane: I’m happy that I don’t do that.
Dave: Good. Thank you. I appreciate that.
Ariane: No problem.
Dave: Now, if I wanted to muddle bacon in a drink, would that work?
Ariane: We actually do a chapter called Cocoa Butter Me Up. That is cocoa butter infused alcohol and coconut oil infused alcohol, 2 separate ones. Typically, that would be either bacon or butter, but, in the book, in general, I just really wanted to offer vegan alternatives for everything. It’s already no gluten ingredient, no refined sugars.
Ariane: I just wanted it to be as across-the-board as possible because that’s what I do in life. The process that we use for that, we talk about how you could do it with bacon fat or butter instead, which are both more common than doing coconut butter or coconut oil.
Dave: Yeah. Bacon has a really neat thing with alcohol. When you get just a hit of bacon, it tastes really good. I’ve tried bacon grease in Bulletproof Coffee, and it’s freaking disgusting. I cannot make it taste good. I know some people say they have, and I just think that they may love bacon more than I do, which is hard to, but …
Ariane: It’s the smoke factor. When you combine that with alcohols, that can be really delicious.
Dave: Okay. Cool.
Ariane: It’s also the fat, the fat-washing process, which is really all you do is melt either bacon fat, butter, coconut oil, cocoa butter, any fat. You mix it with a hard alcohol and you shake it up, and then you let it sit in the fridge for a day or two. The fat separates and you get the flavor behind.
Dave: Oh, cool.
Ariane: With the flavor, you also get this really amazing saltiness. That’s the same thing from the bacon. It’s just a smoothness that cuts through that burn at the end in addition to the flavor of the fat. The coconut oil, vodka basically taste like Malibu Rum without the sweetness.
Dave: See, that’s the trick. See, I was just throwing a few strips of bacon in the blender with a drink, and it just wasn’t the same.
Ariane: You can’t blame bacon.
Dave: I’m kidding. I wasn’t doing that. That would be sick and wrong.
Ariane: That’s disgusting.
Dave: No. Bacon smoothies, they’re not real? All right, I’m with you there. You do something cool with ginger. How do you make an anti-inflammatory ginger syrup that’s not just like a sugar bomb?
Ariane: Yeah, we do both a ginger juice and a ginger syrup. What I love about the juice is that you don’t have to bust out a juicer and you don’t have to go to the grocery store or a juice bar to get the juice. All you have to do is grate fresh ginger over a Microplane or a grater and then, all that pulp that’s left behind, you squeeze, and the juice that comes out is what we use in the book for ginger juice. I love that because it’s a little milder.
Then, for the syrup, I just boil water with fresh ginger, essentially making a really strong ginger tea, and then you add maple syrup, honey or coconut sugar to it. We do some without any sugar at all. Like there’s a lavender syrup that’s erythritol-based, but it did have some non-refined actual sweeteners in there because most people generally want those and they’re like, “Erythritol what?”
Dave: Totally. I have another question. I don’t know if you were going to have an opinion on this or not because it’s something that I meant to talk about a couple of years ago in the blog and I just never did, and I recently was talking about it on Facebook. Someone asked me during Facebook Live. When you’re in ketosis, alcohol has a different effect on you, right?
Dave: Like people in ketosis are less sensitive to alcohol, but I’ve also got at least one case where a friend called me and was, like, “I’m concerned I’m going to lose my immigration status in the US. I just got a DUI, and I didn’t even have one drink, but I’m super heavy in ketosis.” Do you know anything about this?
Ariane: I’ve heard of it. I’ve heard of it, and when I have achieved a ketogenic state myself, which is a little more difficult with the health issues that I’ve had in the past, I was, like, “What has happened to my breath?” and take pity on people around me. It’s a thing.
Dave: You get the keto breath, which is …
Dave: … kind of a dragon breath. It goes away once your metabolism is done with toxins. I didn’t get that anyway.
Ariane: It was just the first time I went into it. Then, any time I’ve managed to since, it’s never been an issue, but that first time was a doozy.
Dave: The question is like “is there something that might trip up some of the breathometers?” There probably is, depending on the brand and the sensitivity of it. People who are in ketosis and drinking should know first of all. if you’re on the Bulletproof Diet, there’s times when you’re in ketosis or, if you’re just on the straight keto diet, you may be more sensitive to the recipes in the book, and there’s a risk that you could blow higher on a breath meter, so I would just say be really careful if you’re going to be driving. Your best bet is to just take an Uber or a Lyft and just make sure that you know what’s going to happen because the last thing you want to do is, like, “Yeah, I had one alcoholic serving 3 hours ago,” and I blew a 0.1 and now I’m in a whole heap of trouble, and it’s really because I was in ketosis, not because there was any meaningful amount of alcohol in my system.
Ariane: That’s important for an audience like yours that does that sort of thing often. That was something I wanted to bring up about our history with alcohol because I know you have a lot of Paleo-based listeners. That was something that I researched and didn’t include in the book because I didn’t want it to be history lessons too much, but, in doing the research about our history with alcohol, there are some … Do you know a lot about that? It’s pretty fascinating, our human history with alcohol.
Dave: Give me the 2-minute version. I think our audience would love that.
Ariane: Okay. Scientists have studied about 70 million years worth of our digestive enzymes and bacteria, and what they found, that was published in the Journal of National Academy of Sciences, is that 10 million years ago, we mutated. We had a genetic mutation, and our bodies created the ADH4 enzyme, the family that you refer to when we started, ADH. Before that, we didn’t have it, and then we did. What that enabled us to do was start eating the fruit off the forest floor that was rotting. We had never been able to do that before. Our diet, while we were living up in the trees, was limited to the fresh fruit that we could pick.
Once we were able to process the ethanol in rotting fruit, we began migrating down to the forest floor so that we had more variety, and our ability to process ethanol and widen our diet with rotting fruit is considered one of the main reasons we were able to migrate from living in the trees to living on the ground, so it actually plays a huge role in human evolution.
Dave: That is way cool, and I totally didn’t know that. That should have been our cool fact of the day, but I just didn’t know it.
Ariane: I love that. I kind of wish I’d included it in the book because, now, I just talk about it every opportunity I get.
Dave: It’s a cool story. It’s interesting, some animals don’t have that. Like dogs don’t have ADH.
Ariane: No, dogs don’t. Cats don’t.
Dave: Yeah. I remember before I knew that grapes were bad for dogs, this was when I was about 10, so going way back … By the way, if you’re listening and you have a dog, don’t give grapes to your dog. I had these dachshunds. I used to have 4 dachshunds, 2 old ones and 2 young ones, so you can imagine like a little, I don’t know what you call it, a little pack of dachshund, but there’s probably a special name for it like a Weiner-Munchen or something.
Anyway, one of them would go and we’d pick grapes, and the ones that the birds bite, essentially, there was a vine growing, and we’d thrown them down and he’d eat them. This dog would literally get falling over drunk every time we’d have a big bag of grapes, which was funny. He seemed to enjoy himself greatly, but, now, I know I was not helping his liver and kidneys or anything.
Ariane: No, you were not creating a performance-enhancing dog.
Dave: He lived until he was 17 and a half, so he did all right.
Ariane: It’s kind of a thing though, just like the elderly people that are eating salami and beer for every meal and they’re They’re like, “Well, I’m a 102.” It worked out just fine.
Dave: Tell me what your grandmother ate. because that’s one of the biggest things that’s going to epigenetically influence you, so I’d like to think that my dog had a grandmother who ate bison, because dachshunds often take bisons down on the plain. You’d just need like 400 dachshunds to take down a bison, and it’s like piranhas. It’s terrible. We have the ability to do it. A lot of animals can’t do it. Some can, but, obviously, somethings like fruit flies, like they thrive on this stuff, so the enzyme has existed for a very long time.
Ariane: It’s been around, in humans, 10 million years or, what you would call humans, 10 million years ago, australopithecines or whatever we were at the time.
Dave: Do you know what percentage neanderthal you are?
Ariane: Is that a 23andMe question?
Ariane: My sister did it, and I don’t remember. I just know that people have always been, like, “You have to me Middle Eastern.” I’m like, “We’re so not Middle Eastern,” and then we did the test, and there was 3% Bedouin.
Dave: Oh, cool, there you go.
Ariane: Finally, it made sense. It’s not just Middle Eastern. We’re like the gypsies, so, of course, that was cool. I’m the only one in my family that looks like that, so now we explained me.
Dave: Explained so much. I found out the other day, because I went back and looked at my results from a couple years ago, I have a neanderthal mutation for less back hair, so, hooray.
Ariane: That’s cool.
Dave: I win.
Ariane: Yeah. That’s a good one to pass on to your kids.
Dave: They do have some alcohol genetic things in there, too, about how likely you are to process alcohol and all. It’s fascinating because there’s the genes and there’s the environmental switches for the genes that are pretty much driven by mitochondria. In fact, I didn’t write about alcohol in the new book I’m working on about mitochondria other than it causes inflammation. Inflammation universally decreases mitochondrial efficiency, but there’s probably some specific things that happen in our glutathione and mitochondria energy production in cells, but it may be beneficial for short periods for some things. I think there’s probably some really cool science around that.
Ariane: There’s so many things you can do with alcohol, too, and mitigate the inflammation. That’s one of the things we use ginger for is getting …
Ariane: … is getting rid of the inflammation that can, otherwise, occur from alcohol.
Dave: It helps a lot. In my understanding of the universe of alcohol, there’s the alcohol itself, ethanol. That has an effect, and then the stuff that comes with it oftentimes is more inflammatory. When you get, like you said, those …
Ariane: Oh, yeah.
Dave: … those mixed chemical, color, sweetener, high fructose corn syrup, crappy mixers, you should expect inflammation without the alcohol. Just drink the mixer.
Ariane: I was just going to say just from that, exactly, that’s not going to do you any favors at all.
Dave: Yeah. Really, if you’re going to eat crappy junk food, go out and have a really good croissant. It’s going to be less harmful even with all the crap that’s in there than you’re going to get from eating a chemical mixer like that. I tend to be pretty suspicious of those.
Ariane: Croissants are my traveling junk food of choice.
Dave: There you go.
Ariane: If I’m stuck in an airport for too long, I’m, like, “Well, now is the time.”
Dave: I limit that. I’ve had the only gluten I’ve had in the last 8 years was in Greece. I’m like, “Well, I respond differently to European wheat,” so I had … That wasn’t croissant. It was baklava.
Ariane: People said that, and then, in Paris, I was totally expecting nothing would affect me at all and I ate … because I eat gluten pretty rarely, and I ate more there, and my body did not love it any more. Not one bit of extra love.
Dave: It turns out there’s the glyphosate. A lot of flour in the US has glyphosate on it because they spray it to make it-
Dave: They spray it at the end of the crop to make it ripen more quickly. I’m like, “Come on, jerks.” Like That’s not cool. Then there’s a very different fungal biome in the US versus Europe. They both contain mycotoxins, but they’re different families of mycotoxins. This is all tracked because of animal husbandry. Then there’s the different yeasts. In the US, we have American style, high growth, genetically modified yeast that grows quickly and, in Europe, like we have old style yeast that grows slowly, so who knows which of those is affecting you, and it could be all of them.
Dave: It’s great because we’re talking about alcohol. Like, okay, this bottle of alcohol makes you feel this way and this one with the same basic name makes me feel this way. It may be different for people and, if you find something that works for you, like that’s what’s most important. Right?
Ariane: Exactly. That’s the goal is to know. If it makes you into a snob because you’re, like, “Oh, I like this one, but I don’t like that one,” you don’t necessarily have to make a big deal out of it and tell everyone you know. You just make that choice and that’s what you purchase.
Dave: Exactly, and that’s what you’d choose to do because you feel better the next day. Now, we’re coming up on the end of the show. I think you’ve already answered this question once before, but maybe you have a different answer today because people do it off the cuff. If someone came to you today and said, “Based on everything you know like right now, I want to perform better at everything I do. I want to kick ass at life. What are the three most important things I need to know?” What would you tell them?
Ariane: This is super off the cuff because I didn’t know you were still doing this.
Dave: I totally do this. I’ve only missed it once.
Ariane: I feel like, in the year since, I should have grown so much that I have all these super different answers that I had last year.
Dave: You did kundalini teacher training. I mean, come on.
Ariane: Oh, my goodness, [fucking … 00:50:32]
Dave: We got you, f bomb right there.
Ariane: Like 13-hour days, 15-hour days, outrageous. Definitely, step outside of your comfort zone. I don’t know. I don’t think that was one that I did last time. If it makes you drastically uncomfortable and it won’t put you in harm’s way, say yes.
Dave: Heck, yeah.
Ariane: That’s where everything good happens. Stop listening to other people telling you, “You can’t,” because you can and you will.
Ariane: Everyone was, like, “You’re going to write another book? You just wrote a book. The book is still doing well. Why do you want to do that?” And I said, “I want to write. This is what I do. I want to help people with food. I want to do more of this. I will figure out a new book. I will get a great book deal. This is going to happen,” and I didn’t listen to anyone else, and everything went well.
The last one, I’m going to stick with from before. Pat yourself on the back more often. Chill out. Relax. Congratulate yourself. You made it here, and that is amazing. You are wonderful. That’s been telling myself that, telling other people that. It’s been one of the best things in life. We don’t congratulate ourselves for wherever we’re at. We have this more-and-more-and-more attitude, and it doesn’t serve anyone.
Dave: Beautiful. Thank you for sharing those. It’s always cool to see what’s inside people’s heads because, when you just have to boil it down on the spot, it’s intriguing. What is tattooed on your forearm?
Ariane: Which one?
Dave: I don’t know. Which is the best one?
Ariane: These are my favorites. This is produce of all sorts.
Dave: That’s cool.
Ariane: There’s a big avocado. There’s all kinds of produce, and then this one is Ganesha and a watery heart and a quote that’s a shortened version of a Mr. Rogers’ quote. He’s my favorite. He’s my absolute favorite person. People are always shocked by that. The full quote is, “There are 3 ways to the ultimate success. The first way is to be kind. The second way is to be kind. The third way is to be kind.”
Dave: I love it.
Ariane: My tattoo is, “Ways to success. One, be kind. Two, be kind. Three, be kind.”
Dave: I love it. One of the … my favorite quotes for Mr. Rogers is, “Look for the helpers.” When he sees something scary on TV like disaster or terrorism or whatever, his parents would just tell him, “Whenever something bad happens, just look around. There’s always helpers,” and then you see all the people coming in and you just totally reframe things. Like that’s a pretty powerful thing. Mr. Rogers definitely had some ugly sweaters, but he had some good knowledge.
Ariane: He’s like my life goal.
Ariane: I want people to feel like Mr. Rogers made me feel.
Dave: That is so cool.
Ariane: Eventually. I’m getting there. It’s a long process. He was a really good man.
Dave: He was, indeed.
Ariane: He didn’t start out quite so exalted.
Dave: Where can people find out more about The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking?
Ariane: It is out November 1st in all major retailers. It’s prior to November 1st, available for pre-order on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, all kinds of other online retailers, and I believe you’re giving away a copy.
Dave: I’m giving away a copy on the show today.
Ariane: You are.
Dave: If you’d like to win the free, signed copy of Ariane’s new book, we can send it to you. All you’ve got to do in order to win the free copy of Ariane’s book that is just a little prize for this episode is, the first week we go live on iTunes, just head on over to Facebook and post about it and, in your post, link either to the iTunes episode of Bulletproof Radio or link to the blog post about it on the Bulletproof website and tag Ariane and tag me on Facebook, and just put your favorite quote from the show or say something nice about the show. At the end of the week, we’ll pick out our favorite one, which is likely to be the one that gets commented on the most or shared the most or liked the most, but we reserve judgment on that one, and then, we will contact you and send you the signed version of the book, which was signed lovingly and carefully by Ariane herself.
All right. if you learned something helpful today about things you could put with alcohol, you never maybe thought of doing bone broth and collagen with alcohol or all these other things, and if you’re one of the probably 80% of people who have an occasional drink and want to feel good when you’re done or maybe, more commonly, you have a lot of drinks and want to feel good when you’re done, however it is, The Thinking Girl’s Guide to Drinking has some stuff in it for you. If you don’t drink at all and you just want to have some mocktails that make you feel like your drinking, it’s all in there.
If you liked the episode, I would appreciate it if you went over to iTunes, it takes you about 30 seconds, and just give us 5 stars. The reviews really, really matter because they help other people find it. We’re pushing 50 million downloads on iTunes. Probably, a half a million people will hear this episode, so, if you could just take a minute or two to go over there and it really makes a difference.
Thank you, and thanks for listening. Have an awesome day.